National Identity and Discrimination in Germany in Times of Migration

Shortly before the beginning of the Men's Football World Championship, a debate on migration and the question of who is a *true* German erupted on the issue of Mesut Özil taking a photo with the Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan. The presumed reciprocal support of one of the two most famous Turkish men sparked a vividly debate on whether Mesut Özil, playing in the dress of the German Football national team, should distance himself from the policies and authoritarian tendencies by the President of his father's land. This debate quickly developed to wider debate about who actually is German and whether it is possible that migrants and their children might even feel attached to two or even more heritages.

Based on this debate, social activist Ali Can developed a hashtag, which should be a crystallization and manifestation of the struggles, accusations and latent racism people not stemming from an autochton German heritage face in their everyday life. Inspired by the MeToo movement by women experiencing sexual harassment and violence from partners, superiors and even strangers, #MeTwo was born. Using this hashtag, everyone having experienced harassment and discrimination due to her migration background should unfold their story to make the general public aware of the problems people with migration background face in Germany. Based on this insight, reciprocal understanding of people with and without migration background should emerge, building a more sustainable and peaceful society.

To empirically test the implications and outcomes of this online movement, we CorrelAid decided to scrape all N = 159114 tweets on #MeTwo from July 24 to August 03, 2018, and examine the content, scope, and temporal dynamics of this social media event, which now celebrates its first birthday. As such, we aim to answer the following questions:

  • How did the #MeTwo movement emerge and develop over the course of its lifetime?
  • Which users have been involved in the online movement? Who were the most retweeted and favorited users? Do they tweet from personal accounts or verified ones that are of public interest? How inclusive is the movement overall?
  • How does the retweet network look like? Are there any key players that could potentially influence and shape the debate as the online movement continues? Did the network develop or change during the movement?
  • Which content was shared and discussed? Which opinions and emotions are expressed in the tweets? Are the stories presented in the #MeTwo highlighting the staggering experiences people faced in the past, or do positive experiences and hopes for a better future dominate the discussion? Is there a connection to other prominent hashtags?

Zeitraum - Time Range

Bitte verwenden Sie das Bedienfeld auf der linken Seite, um den Zeitraum und die entsprechenden Google Suchbegriffe auszuwählen.

Please use the panel on the left-hand side to specify the data range and the Google search words.

In der folgenden Grafik wird die Zahl der Tweets und Retweets pro Stunde zur MeTwo-Bewegung gezeigt.

In the following plot, you can see the number of tweets and retweets on MeTwo per hour.


Retweet Verteilung - Retweet Distribution

Die Verteilung von Tweets zu Retweets folgt einem Verhältnis von 1 zu 5.

The distribution of tweets to retweets follows a ratio of 1 to 5.


Google Trends

Zu guter Letzt werden hier Google Trends Ergebnisse mit der Twitteraktivität zu MeTwo verglichen.

Last but not least, Google Trends results are compared with the Twitter activity of MeTwo.



In diesem Abschnitt finden Sie die aktivsten Twitter-Account der #MeTwo Bewegung. Wir unterscheiden hierbei nach Anzahl der Tweets, Anzahl der Favorisierungen und Retweets. Weiterhin bilden wir die Account nach Statusgruppen (Persönliche Accounts, Influencer, verifizierte Accounts und verifizierte Influencer) ab.

In this panel you will find the most active Twitter accounts of the #MeTwo movement. We distinguish according to number of tweets, number of favorites, and retweets. Furthermore we map the accounts according to status groups (personal accounts, influencers, verified accounts and verified influencers).






In diesem Abschnitt finden Sie die Anzahl an Tweets und Retweets je nach Statusgruppe (siehe User-Abschnitt). Weiterhin untersuchen wir die Gruppe der verifizierten Accounts genauer und unterscheiden hierbei nach Medieninstitution, Journalisten und nicht-Medien Akteuren. Für diese Gruppen geben wir ebenfalls die Anzahl an Tweets und Retweets aus.

This panel lists the number of tweets and retweets by status group (see User panel). Furthermore, we examine the group of verified accounts in more detail, distinguishing between media institutions, journalists and non-media actors. For these groups we also output the number of tweets and retweets.





In diesem Abschnitt untersuchen wir den tatsächlichen Inhalt der Tweets. Hierbei untersuchen wir sowohl die mit #MeTwo gemeinsam verwendeten Hashtags, ebenso wie die Anzahl an positiv und negativ konnotierten Wörter. Zu guter Letzt untersuchen wir noch die Sprache der abgegebenen Tweets.

In this panel, we examine the actual content of the tweets. Here we examine both the hashtags shared with #MeTwo and the number of words with positive and negative connotations. Last but not least, we examine the language of the tweets.




Word cloud of positive and negative words




In diesem Abschnitt fokusieren wir uns auf die Medienaccounts und untersuchen, welche Medienakteure an der #MeTwo Debatte beteiligt waren. Hierbei untersuchen wir erneut die Anzahl der Tweets, Anzahl der Favorisierungen und Retweets.

In this panel, we focus on media accounts and examine which media actors were involved in the #MeTwo debate. Here we re-examine the number of tweets, number of favorites, and retweets.




In diesem Abschnitt zeigen wir die Entwicklung des Netzwerks während der #MeTwo Debatte. Es zeigt sich, dass sich im Laufe der Zeit mehrere relevante Nodes entwickeln.

In this panel, we show the development of the network during the #MeTwo debate. It shows that several relevant nodes develop over time.

CorrelAid Project Team

Konstantin Gavras

Lisa Hehnke

Paul Meiners

Sandra Meneses

Juan Orduz

CorrelAid Engineering Team

Jan Dix

Johannes Müller

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